Vowels and consonant letters and sounds

What is the difference between vowels and consonant letters and sounds? What rules do they obey? How is the hardness and softness of sounds and letters mean? All these questions you will receive answers in the submitted article.

The letters of b and b are not sounds.

General information about vowels and consonant letters

The vowels and consonant letters are the basis of the entire Russian language. After all, with their combinations, the syllables are formed, which add up to words, expressions, suggestions, texts, and so on. That is why this topic is dedicated to quite a few hours in high school.

What vowels and consonant letters are in the Russian alphabet, a person already learns from the first class. And despite all the seeming simplicity of this topic, it is considered one of the most difficult for students.

So, in Russian there are ten vowels, namely: o, and, and, s, yu, y, e, e, y, e. During their direct pronunciation, you can feel how the air passes freely through the oral cavity. At the same time, we are quite clearly hearing our own voice. It should also be noted that the vowel sounds can be dragged (A-A-A-A, E-U-E-E, and-and-and-and and and, U-U-U-y and so on ).

Public letters are the basis of the syllable, that is, they are organized it. As a rule, in Russian words as many syllables as the vowels themselves. We give a visual example: y-che-ni-ki - 5 syllables, re-bia - 3 syllables, it is 1 syllable, Oh, 2 syllables and so on. There are even words that consist only of one vowel sound. It is usually interjections (a!, Oh!, Y, y, y!) And alliances (and, and so around).

2. Public letters.

The spelling of vowels in the root of words, endings, suffixes and consoles is very important topics in the "Russian language" discipline. After all, without knowing how such letters are written in a particular word, it is quite problematic to compile a competent letter.

Consonant letters and sounds in Russian

Public and consonant letters and sounds differ significantly. And if the first can be easily dramatically, the latter are pronounced as short as possible (except for hissing, as they can be pulled).

It should be noted that in the Russian alphabet the number of consonants - 21, namely: b, in, g, d, g, s, y, k, l, m, n, p, r, s, t, f, x, C, h, sh, sh. The sounds designated by them are made to divide on the deaf and ringing. What is the difference? The fact is that during the pronunciation of ringing consonants, it can hear not only the characteristic noise, but also its own voice (b!, S!, P! And so.). As for deaf, they cannot be loud or, for example, scroll. They create only peculiar noise (W-sh-sh-sh-sh, sch-s-s-s and so on.).

Thus, almost all consonant sounds are divided into two different categories:

  • ringing - b, in, g, d, g, s, y, l, m, n, r;
  • Deaf - K, P, C, T, F, X, C, H, W.

Softness and hardness of consonant sounds

Not everyone knows, but vowels and consonant sounds can be solid and soft. This is the second most important feature in Russian (after the belling and deafness).

Public letters: A-I, O-E, U-Yu, s-and, uh.

A distinctive feature of soft consonants is that during their pronunciation, the human language takes a special position. As a rule, it shifts a little forward, and his entire middle part is slightly lifted. As for solid consonants, while their pronunciation is delayed back. You can compare the position of your speech body yourself: [n] - [n '], [t] - [t']. It should also be noted that ringing and soft sounds sound slightly higher than solid.

In Russian, almost all consonants have pairs based on softness and hardness. However, there are such that they simply do not. These include solid - [g], [sh] and [C] and soft - [th '], [h'] and [w '].

Softness and hardness of vowels

Surely few people heard that there are soft vowels in Russian. Soft consonants are quite familiar to us sounds, which you can not say about the aforementioned. This is partly due to the fact that in high school this topic is practically no time. After all, it is understandable, with what vowels are becoming soft. However, we still decided to devote you to this topic.

So, softly called those letters that are able to soften the consonants going to them. These include the following: and, E, I, E, Yu. As for such letters, as a, y, s, e, oh, they are considered solid, since they do not soften going ahead of the consonants. To make sure this gives a few examples:

  • package;
  • child;
  • car;
  • speech;
  • clothes;
  • bed;
  • a computer;
  • Peter;
  • wood;
  • frost;
  • fun;
  • Small and others. Publicated a, o, y, s, ei in the letter denote the hardness of consonant sounds.

Designation of the softness of consonant letters in phonetic analysis of the word

The sounds and the letters of the Russian language studies the phonetics. Surely, in high school you have repeatedly asked to make a phonetic analysis of any word. During such an analysis, it is necessary to indicate whether the consonant letter of the letter is softer or not. If so, it must be denoted as follows: [n '], [t'], [d '], [in'], [m '], [p']. That is, at the top of the right next to the consonant letter, facing the soft vowel, it is required to put a kind of dash. The following soft sounds are marked with a similar icon - [th '], [h'] and [w '].

We learn what vowels and consonant sounds and letters exist in Russian. As vowels and consonant sounds are denoted by letters in the alphabet, study in grade 1. These knowledge deepens in the 2 school class.

Consider how vowels and consonant sounds are formed, how many of them in speech, what letters they are denoted by writing.

Public and consonant sounds belong to speech. Sounds, merging together, form words with which you can tell about something or find out. Sounds we hear with the help of hearing organs. Sounds of speech on the participation of voice or voices and noise in their education are divided into vowels and consonants.

Vowels and letters

In each word, vowel sounds are the most sound. A voice is used in their formation. Upon pronunciation of sounds, the air jet is free from the mouth in the exhalation.



- These are sounds of speech, which consist only from the voice.

If you change the outlines of the lips, you can distinguish vowels. The sound [o] form rounded lips, for example in the word "cat" . If you pull the lips with a tube, then get the sound [y] in the word "friend" . If the lips crush in a smile, then hear the sound [and] in the word "feast" .

In Russian, there are six major vowels:

[a], [o], [y], [and], [s], [u]

In the word, vowel sounds form a syllable alone or with consonants:

  • name
  • flour
  • beard
  • orphan

These sounds can be written on paper with appropriate letters:

Besides them, on the letter, the softness of the previous consonant designate vowels "E", "E", "Yu", "I" :

These letters denote double sounds consisting of a consonant [y '] and corresponding vowel [a], [o], [y], [e].

The vowels E, E, and, Yu, I designate the softness of consonant sounds.


In Russian, six vowels and ten vowels: a, o, y, and, s, e, e, o, yu, i

Public letters can be written in pairs:

With their help distinguish words:

  • Rad - row
  • Tomny - Dark
  • Onions - Luc

We remember that the sounds of hearing, and letters we write.

For example: Mal - [m] solid sound, because after it is the sound of A.

Consonant sounds and letters

Unlike vowels, most of the sounds of Russian speech are formed if the air jet when exhaling, various obstacles are encouraged, which create a characteristic noise.


Sounds that consist of voices and noise are called consonants.

In Russian, there are 36 consonants.


[b], [b '], [in], [in'], [g], [g '], [d'], [d '], [g], [z], [s'], [th '], [k], [k'] [l], [l '] [m], [m'], [n], [n '], [p], [p'], [p ], [p '], [s], [s'], [t], [t '], [φ], [f'], [x], [x '], [c], [h' ], [sh], [sh "]

Many consonant sounds differ in the sign of soft / hardness and make up pairs:

  • [b] - [b '];
  • [in] - [in '];
  • [g] - [g '];
  • [d] - [d '];
  • [s] - [s'];
  • [K] - [K '] ;;
  • [l] - [l '];
  • [M] - [M '];
  • [n] - [n '];
  • [P] - [P '];
  • [p] - [p '];
  • [C] - [C '];
  • [t] - [t '];
  • [F] - [f '];
  • [x] - [x '].

Sounds [F], [C], [sh] Always hard, even if there are vowels after the corresponding letters "E" or "E" . Sounds [th '], [ch'], [sh '] always soft.

Depending on the degree of voting in their composition, the consonants are ringing and deaf.

In the letter, consonant sounds can be transferred in the form of 21 letters:

b, in, g, d, g, s, y, k, l, m, n, p, r, s, t, f, x, c, h, sh, u

Consult letters can be written and read in words.

So, the speech uses 42 sounds (6 vowels and 36 consonants). And in the alphabet of the Russian language there are 33 letters:

  • Ten vowels;
  • 21 consonant letter;
  • ъ и ь.

Soft and solid signs do not indicate sounds in Russian. They are used only in written speech to designate the softness of consonants, separation of vowels and consonants in the middle of words.

Video Tutorial

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Public sounds - 6, consonant sounds - 37.

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